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Two species, the Japanese sea lion ( Seals are found from polar to tropical waters.
Like cetaceans, they conserve oxygen when diving by restricting blood flow to only vital organs and slowing their heart rates by about 50 percent to 80 percent.
Seals and sea lions are highly evolved for swimming, including flippers, a streamlined fusiform (tapered at both ends) shape, thick insulation in the form of fur and/or subcutaneous layer of blubber, and increased visual acuity for foraging at extremely low light levels.
Seals and sea lions are in the order Carnivora and suborder Pinnipedia, along with walruses.
The Caribbean monk seal was hunted to extinction, with the last record reported in 1952.
Human threats to seals include pollution (e.g., oil spills, industrial pollutants, and competition for prey with humans).